Sau WISH (ước, ước gì) và IF ONLY (giá mà, phải chi) là một mệnh đề chỉ điều ước, một điều không có thật.
Có 3 loại mệnh đề đi sau WISH và IF ONLY, được dùng để chỉ sự ao ước ở tương lai, hiện tại và quá khứ.
1. Wish about the future
Chúng ta sử dụng câu ước ở tương lai với mong muốn ai đó, sự việc gì đó sẽ tốt đẹp hơn trong tương lai.
S + WISH + S + would/ could + V (bare-infinitive)
IF ONLY + S + would/ could + V (bare-infinitive)
- I wish you wouldn’t leave your clothes all over the floor.
- I wish I would be an astronaut in the future.
- If only I would take the trip with you next week.
- If only I would be able to attend your wedding next week.
- I wish they would stop arguing.
2. Wish about the present
Chúng ta dùng câu ước ở hiện tại để ước về điều không có thật ở hiện tại, thường là thể hiện sự nuối tiếc về tình huống hiện tại (regret about present situations).
S + WISH + S+ V (simple past)
IF ONLY + S+ V (simple past)
(be à were)
- If wish I were rich. (But I am poor now).
- I can’t swim. I wish I could swim.
- If only she were here. (The fact is that she isn’t here).
- We wish that we didn’t have to go to class today. (The fact is that we have to go to class today).
3. Wish about the past
Chúng ta sử dụng câu ước ở qúa khứ để ước điều trái với những gì xảy ra trong quá khứ, thường là để diễn tả sự nuối tiếc với tình huống ở quá khứ.
S + WISH + S + V ( PII) = IF ONLY + S + V ( P2)
S + WISH + S + COULD HAVE + P2 = IF ONLY+ S + COULD HAVE + P2
- If only I had gone by taxi. (I didn’t go by taxi).
- I wish I hadn’t failed my exam last year. (I failed my exam).
- She wishes she had had enough money to buy the house. (She didn’t have enough money to buy it).
- If only I had met her yesterday. (I didn’t meet her).
- She wishes she could have been there. (She couldn’t be there.)
Exercise 1: Give the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses
1. She wishes her father (be) here now to help her.
2. I wish you (not give) them my phone number yesterday.
3. I wish they (visit) us when they were in town.
4. I wish someone (give) me a job next month.
5. If only I (can take) the trip to Hanoi with her next summer.
6. We wish we (understand) all the teacher’s explanation yesterday.
7. He missed an exciting football match on TV last night. He wishes he (watch) it.
8. If only I (have) more time to do this job.
9. I wish she (come) to see me yesterday.
10. I wish that someday I (be) able to marry her.
Exercise 2: Choose the best answer:
1. I'm not very fit. I wish ______
A. I would be fitter
B. I were fitter
C. I was fitter
2. It's very hot.
A. I wish it were cooler.
B. I wish it was rain tomorrow.
C. If only it had rained.
3. I was really lazy in my childhood.
A. I wish I were more active.
B. If only I would practice more sport.
C. I wish I had done more sport.
4. Those children are really noisy.
A. I wish they were quieter
B. I wish they would be quiet
C. If only they had been quiet.
5. We had a terrible problem with the computer yesterday.
A. I wish you would repair it
B. I wish it would never happen again
C. I wish your friend Ramon had been here